Résumé : Intracytoplasmic lamellar organelles identical in ultrastructure to surfactant-containing lamellar bodies found in type II pneumocytes, have been demonstrated in other tissues, in synoviocytes and mesothelial cells, in a distribution pattern which reflects the systemic expression of rheumatoid disease. Antibodies raised against surfactant protein A (SP-A), exhibit a ranking of tissue reactivity in area, intensity and density of cells which also parallels the frequency and degree of pathological involvement characteristic of rheumatoid disease, showing in ascending order of immunopositivity, lacrymal and salivary epithelia, pulmonary parenchyma, mesothelium and synoviocytes. Maximal tissue reactivity to anti-SP-A antibodies was found in the synovium of 55 rheumatoid patients exhibiting classical histopathological appearances of RA, in a pattern of immunostaining identical to that obtained with ML30, an antibody to mycobacterial heat shock protein 65kDa which, in turn, cross-reacted with SP-A in dot blot testing.