Résumé : Indonesia used to be affected by varying degrees of iodine deficiency. Salt iodization has been the adopted strategy on a national basis since 1979. The prevalence of goiter in school-age children (SAC) determined by palpation subsequently markedly decreased within the next 15 years. The objective of the present work was to perform an updated evaluation of the status of iodine nutrition in Indonesia by using standardized methods for the measurement of thyroid volume by ultrasounds and the concentration of urinary iodine in SAC. The survey included 7,447 SAC ages 6 to 12 years from 129 sites selected by multistage and stratified sampling in five provinces (4 in Java plus Sumatra and the Province of Bali). A mobile unit (ThyroMobil van) equipped with a sonographic device and facilities for the collection of urine samples visited all sites. In Java plus Sumatra, the median urinary iodine was 195 μg/L. Thirty-four percent of the values were within normal limits (between 100 and 200 μg/L); 17.2% were below 100 μg/L and 48.8% were above 200 μg/L, including 18.2% above 300 μg/L and 0.7% above 1000 μg/L. In Bali, the median was 81 μg/L with 58.3% of the values below 100 μg/L and only 14.7% of the values above 200 μg/L. The prevalence of goiter determined by ultrasounds and using the World Health Organization/International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (WHO/ICCIDD) normative values for gender and age was 3.0% in Java plus Sumatra and 1.9% in Bali. The values were 8.0% and 12.5%, respectively, when using reference values for Indonesia established during the present survey in an iodine replete area in central Java. In conclusion, (1) iodine deficiency has been eliminated in large parts of Indonesia; (2) Bali is still affected by mild iodine deficiency; (3) in many places, iodine deficiency has been replaced by iodine excess, occasionally potentially toxic; (4) the WHO/ICCIDD normative values for thyroid volume measured by ultrasound in SAC are not valid for Indonesia; (5) in Indonesia, the level of salt iodization could be decreased and the biological monitoring of urinary iodine at the population level should be reinforced and maintained; (6) the ThyroMobil model has, as in other parts of the world, demonstrated its efficiency in the organization of partnership evaluation and monitoring of iodine nutrition, as well as in social mobilization.