Résumé : Soldierless termites are well represented in the Neotropics where they constitute about one-third of the total termite species richness. However, despite their substantial diversity, they have been neglected by most taxonomists because they lack soldiers. Species identification therefore relies upon worker characters, in particular the anatomy of the digestive tract and the enteric valve armature. Here, in order to provide a solid basis for future taxonomic work on this group, we supply detailed descriptions of the type species of the genus Anoplotermes, A. pacificus, and of a few common and widespread species, which we retain in Anoplotermes: A. banksi, A. parvus and A. janus, sp. nov. We transfer Anoplotermes manni to a new genus, Longustitermes, and place six species into synonymy. This redefinition of the genus Anoplotermes is complemented by DNA sequences of four genetic markers to allow species identification by molecular techniques and future phylogenetic studies. This study represents a first step towards a complete revision of the neotropical Anoplotermes-group. © CSIRO.