Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Background: Low birthweight (LBW) is recognized as major determinant of morbidity and mortality in childhood. The aim of the study was to determine in a rural and Sahelian setting, the impact of LBW in full-term babies on infant morbidity and mortality in underprivileged populations. Methods: A longitudinal study has been undertaken from April 1st 2003 to December 31st 2004 in a rural health district. One thousand and thirteen full-term babies were followed-up until 12 months of age. Morbidity, nutritional status and survival were analyzed according to birthweight. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were derived from Cox model. Results: Risk of death was two times higher in children with LBW than in children with normal birthweight (HR = 1.9; P = 0.020). In the Cox model, the only other significant effect was prenatal care. The risk of death for children born from mothers who do not achieve prenatal care was significantly higher (HR = 2.2; P = 0.013). Nutritional status had an impact of death only in LBW infants. Number of episodes of diarrhea, fever and coughing were not significantly associated with birthweight. Conclusion: Preventing LBW, accessibility and utilization of prenatal care and specific screening of LBW infant's growth should be taken into account when planning the interventions to reduce infant mortality. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.