Thèse de doctorat
Résumé : Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can provide new methods for information gathering for a variety of applications. In order to ensure the network quality of service, the quality of the measurements has to be guaranteed. Distributed fault detection and isolation schemes are preferred to centralized solutions to diagnose faulty sensors in WSNs. Indeed the first approach avoids the need for a central node that collects information from every sensor node, and hence it limits complexity and energy cost while improving reliability.In the case of state estimation over distributed architectures, the sensor faults can be propagated in the network during the information exchanging process. To build a reliable state estimate one has to make sure that the measurements issued by the different sensors are fault free. That is one of the motivations to build a distributed fault detection and isolation (FDI) system that generates an alarm as soon as a measurement is subject to a fault (has drift, cdots ). In order to diagnose faults with small magnitude in wireless sensor networks, a systematic methodology to design and implement a distributed FDI system is proposed. It resorts to distinguishability measures to indicate the performance of the FDI system and to select the most suitable node(s) for information exchange in the network with a view to FDI. It allows one to determine the minimum amount of data to be exchanged between the different nodes for a given FDI performance. In this way, the specifications for FDI can be achieved while the communication and computation cost are kept as small as possible. The distributed FDI systems are designed both in deterministic and stochastic frameworks. They are based on the parity space approach that exploits spacial redundancy as well as temporal redundancy in the context of distributed schemes. The decision systems with the deterministic method and the stochastic method are designed not only to detect a fault but also to distinguish which fault is occurring in the network. A case study with a WSN is conducted to verify the proposed method. The network is used to monitor the temperature and humidity in a computer room. The distributed FDI system is validated both with simulated data and recorded data.