|Résumé :||Among the renewable energies, wind energy presents the highest growth in installed capacity and penetration in modern power systems. This is why reliability of wind turbines becomes an important topic in research and industry. To this end, condition monitoring (or health monitoring) systems are needed for wind turbines. The core of any condition monitoring system (CMS) are fault diagnosis algorithms whose task is to provide early warnings upon the occurrence of incipient (small magnitude) faults. Thanks to the use of CMS we can avoid premature breakdowns and reduce significatively maintenance costs.
The present thesis deals with fault diagnosis in sensors of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) for wind turbine (WT) applications. In particular we are interested in performing fault detection and isolation (FDI) of incipient faults affecting the measurements of the three-phase signals (currents and voltages) in a controlled DFIG. Although different authors have dealt with FDI for sensors in induction machines and in DFIGs, most of them rely on the machine model with
constant parameters. However, the parameter uncertainties due to changes in the operating conditions will produce degradation in the performance of such FDI systems.
In this work we propose a systematic methodology for the design of sensor FDI systems with the following characteristics: i) capable of detecting and isolating incipient additive (bias, drifts) and multiplicative (changes in the sensor
gain) faults, ii) robust against changes in the references/disturbances affecting the controlled DFIG as well as modelling/parametric uncertainties, iii) residual generation system based on a multi-observer strategy to enhance the isolation process, iv) decision system based on statistical-change detection algorithms to treat the entire residual and perform fault detection and isolation at once.
Three novel sensor FDI approaches are proposed. The first is a signal-based approach, that uses the model of the balanced three-phase signals (currents or voltages) for residual generation purposes. The second is a model-based approach
that accounts for variation in the parameters. Finally, a third approach that combines the benefits of both the signal- and the model-based approaches is proposed. The designed sensor FDI systems have been validated using measured voltages, as well as simulated data from a controlled DFIG and a speed-controlled induction
In addition, in this work we propose a discrete-time multiple input multiple output (MIMO) regulator for each power converter, namely for the rotor side converter (RSC) and for the grid side converter (GSC). In particular, for RSC
control, we propose a modified feedback linearization technique to obtain a linear time invariant (LTI) model dynamics for the compensated DFIG. The novelty of this approach is that the compensation does not depend on highly uncertain parameters such as the rotor resistance. For GSC control, a LTI model dynamics
is derived using the ideas behind feedback linearization. The obtained LTI model dynamics are used to design Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) regulators. A single design is needed for all the possible operating conditions.