Résumé : Beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m)-derived peptides are minor transplantation Ags in mice as beta(2)m-positive skin grafts (beta(2)m(+/+)) are rejected by genetically beta(2)m-deficient recipient mice (beta(2)m(-/-)). We studied the effector pathways responsible for the rejection induced by beta(2)-microglobulin-derived minor transplantation Ags. The rejection of beta(2)m(+/+) skin grafts by naive beta(2)m(-/-) mice was dependent on both CD4 and CD8 T cells as shown by administration of depleting mAbs. Experiments performed with beta(2)m(-/-)CD8(-/-) double knockout mice grafted with a beta(2)m(+/+) MHC class I-deficient skin showed that sensitized CD4 T cells directed at beta(2)m peptides-MHC class II complexes are sufficient to trigger rapid rejection. Rejection of beta(2)m(+/+) grafts was associated with the production of IL-5 in vitro, the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNAs in the grafted tissue, and the presence within rejected grafts of a considerable eosinophil infiltrate. Blocking IL-4 and IL-5 in vivo and depleting eosinophils with an anti-CCR3 mAb prevented graft eosinophil infiltration and prolonged beta(2)m(+/+) skin graft survival. Lymphocytes from rejecting beta(2)m(-/-) mice also displayed an increased production of IFN-gamma after culture with beta(2)m(+/+) minor alloantigens. In vivo neutralization of IFN-gamma inhibited skin graft rejection. Finally, beta(2)m(+/+) skin grafts harvested from B6(lpr/lpr) donor mice, which lack a functional Fas molecule, survived longer than wild-type beta(2)m(+/+) skin grafts, showing that Fas-Fas ligand interactions are involved in the rejection process. We conclude that IL-4- and IL-5-dependent eosinophilic rejection, IFN-gamma-dependent mechanisms, and Fas-Fas ligand interactions are effector pathways in the acute rejection of minor transplantation Ags.