Résumé : Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer with limited therapeutic options. In this study, we evaluated the impact of CDK4/6 inhibition by palbociclib in a panel of 28 MPM cell lines, including 19 patient-derived cell lines, using a variety of approaches including RNA-sequencing. Palbociclib used alone sufficed to strongly and durably inhibit the proliferation of 23 MPM cell lines, indicating a unique sensitivity of MPM to CDK4/6 inhibition. Importantly, insensitivity to palbociclib was mostly explained by the lack of active T172-phosphorylated CDK4. This was associated with the high p16INK4A (CDKN2A) levels that accompany RB1 defects or inactivation, and also (unexpectedly) cyclin E1 over-expression in the presence of wild-type RB1. Prolonged treatment with palbociclib irreversibly inhibited proliferation despite re-induction of cell cycle genes upon drug washout. A senescence-associated secretory phenotype including various potentially immunogenic components was also irreversibly induced. Phosphorylated CDK4 was detected in 80% of 47 MPM tumors indicating their intrinsic sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibitors. The absence of this phosphorylation in some highly proliferative MPM tumors was linked to partial deletions of RB1, leading to very high p16 (CDKN2A) expression. Our study strongly supports the clinical evaluation of CDK4/6 inhibitory drugs for MPM treatment, in monotherapy or combination therapy.