Résumé : Aims: Non-infectious pulmonary complications (NIPCs) occur frequently following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). As there is no consensus on the description of the related pulmonary pathological lesions, pathologist reports and clinical conclusions are largely inconsistent in routine practice. The aim of our study was to provide an accurate overview of post-allogeneic HSCT NIPCs from a large number of lung biopsies. Methods and results: We reviewed 61 lung biopsies in patients with an NIPC, including 51 surgical lung biopsies, four post-mortem biopsies and six lung explants. We found both bronchiolar (n = 59) and alveolar/interstitial pathologies (n = 27). We describe two types of bronchiolar lesions: bronchiolectasies (n = 37) and fibrous and cellular lesions with luminal narrowing (n = 43). We found a wide spectrum of airway/interstitial pathologies that were labelled using the terminology of the 2013 American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), including the following: organising pneumonia (OP, n = 8), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, n = 9), diffuse alveolar damage (DAD, n = 6), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP, n = 1) and pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE, n = 2), as well as one instance of associated PPFE and NSIP. Conclusions: Interstitial pathology was associated with bronchiolar lesions in 41% of the cases reviewed (n = 25). Lung airway and interstitial inflammation was still present in lung explants from patients who underwent lung transplantation for post-allogeneic HSCT end-stage respiratory insufficiency. Herein, we describe a wide spectrum of pathological lung lesions encountered in post-allogeneic HSCT NIPCs.