Résumé : Urinary tract infection is the most common infection among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Many transplant physicians fear that host compromise will allow low-virulence strains to cause pyelonephritis in KTRs, so they often treat asymptomatic bacteriuria with antibiotics. Identification of the host/microbe factors that determine the clinical presentation (i.e. pyelonephritis versus asymptomatic bacteriuria) once an Escherichia coli strain enters a KTRs bladder could inform management decisions.